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Nombreuses sont les erreurs de frappe sur les monnaies antiques (brockage en Anglo-saxon). Précisons tout d’abord qu’une monnaie incuse n’est pas uniquement le résultat d’une erreur monétaire.
Ancient Chinese coins are quite different from the coins produced in the West in antiquity. Indeed, they are made by pouring molten metal into molds (like celtic potin), whereas ancient Western coins are mostly minted (like Roman denarii)
The coins axis is the orientation of the engraving on the right side of the coin in relation to that on the reverse side and is expressed in hours: "twelve o'clock" indicating that the coins is oriented, on a vertical axis, towards the top of the coin and "six o'clock" towards the bottom; generally at six o'clock for coins and 12 o'clock for medals.
These two types of Roman commemorative coins were issued between 330 and 346 AD by Constantine and his sons. They commemorate the founding of Constantinople and 'reaffirm' Rome as the traditional centre of the Roman Empire.
The first type, Constantinopolis, shows a Victory standing on its reverse side...
The paraloid is intended as a base for the consolidation and impregnation of wall and easel paintings, as a varnish for glass and ceramics and as a consolidant for wood.
However, one can read quite often (on the internet, of course!) that Paraloid is effective in protecting coins from corrosion or recurrent oxidation phenomena .